Características personales, clínicas y sociales en pacientes con estancia hospitalaria prolongada en los pabellones de pacientes agudos del Hospital Víctor Larco Herrera
Personal, clinical and social characteristics of inpatients with long hospital stay in the acute wards of the Hospital Víctor Larco Herrera

Roger Abanto1,a, Glauco Valdivieso-Jiménez1,b, Adrián Arévalo1,2,b, Sandra Orihuela1,3,b

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RESUMEN
OBJETIVO
Identificar las características generales que influyen en la estancia hospitalaria prolongada en los pabellones de pacientes agudos y su comparación sobre el motivo de ingreso en una institución de Salud Mental.

MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS
Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, y transversal, realizado en el Hospital Víctor Larco Herrera. Con una población entre 18 a 65 años con una estancia mayor a 60 días en los pabellones de pacientes agudos. Se realizó revisión de historias clínicas, recolección de datos en ficha estructurada y análisis estadístico mediante SPSS 22.0. Principales medidas de resultados: frecuencias, media y valor de p mediante chi cuadrado en las variables características personales, clínicas y sociales.

RESULTADOS
Fueron 52 % de pacientes internados que cumplían estancia mayor a 60 días, cuyas edades fueron: jóvenes y jóvenes adultos 45 %, mediana 35,89, DE=10,45. Mujeres, un 60 %; instrucción secundaria, 61 %; solteros, 81 %; desocupación laboral, 74 %. Ingresados por Emergencia, 74 %, reingresos,55 %, de Lima, 53 %. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue esquizofrenia en 62 %; comorbilidad, 61 %; presentación con agresividad, 64 %; evolución estacionaria, 63 %; ingreso por motivo judicial,47 % y clínico en 47 %. El tratamiento brindado a los pacientes fue principalmente de combinación de fármacos en 74,2 %. Sin abandono sociofamiliar, el 52 %; acompañados por familiares, 66 %; acompañados por policía, 71,4 %; familia disfuncional, 72,6 %; soporte por padres, 51,6 % y pertenencia al SIS el 92 %. Existe mayor significancia estadística en el sexo, estado civil, procedencia, vía de ingreso, tipo o condición de paciente (nuevo o reingreso), acompañamiento de familiares y de otras personas al ingreso.

CONCLUSIONES
Hospital stay is affected by personal factors such as gender and marital status in patients admitted due to legal reasons. The origin, clinical factors such as the admission route and condition, and social factors such as the company of relatives and other persons, have influence on patients admitted due to clinical reasons.

Palabras clave:
Pacientes mentales; hospitalización; salud mental (Fuente: DeCS BIREME).

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ABSTRACT
OBJETIVE
To identify the general characteristics that influence a long hospital stay in the acute wards of a mental health institution and to compare them with the reason for admission.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hospital Víctor Larco Herrera in patients between 18 and 65 years of age staying longer than 60 days in the acute wards. Medical records review, data collection in structured files, and statistical analysis through IBM SPSS Statistics Base 22.0 were performed. Main outcome measures were the frequencies, mean and p value (obtained by chi square test) in the variables of personal, clinical and social characteristics.

RESULTS
Out of the total number of inpatients, 52 % were staying longer than 60 days, 45 % were youths and young adults (median = 35.89, SD = 10.45), 60 % were women, 61 % had secondary education, 81 % were single, 74 % were unemployed, 74 % were admitted through the emergency department, 55 % were readmitted, 53 % were from Lima, 62 % had schizophrenia which was the most frequent diagnosis, 61 % showed comorbidities, 64 % presented an aggressive behavior on admission, 63 % showed a stable progression, 47 % were admitted due to legal reasons, 47 % were admitted due to clinical reasons, 74.2 % mainly received combination therapies, 52 % did not experience social or family abandonment, 66 % were accompanied by their relatives, 71.4 % were accompanied by the police, 72.6 % had a dysfunctional family, 51.6 % were supported by their parents, and 92 % were covered by the Comprehensive Health Service (SIS). There is greater statistical significance in gender, marital status, origin, admission route, patient type or condition (new or readmitted), and company of relatives and other persons at admission.

CONCLUSIONS
Hospital stay is affected by personal factors such as gender and marital status in patients admitted due to legal reasons. The origin, clinical factors such as the admission route and condition, and social factors such as the company of relatives and other persons, have influence on patients admitted due to clinical reasons.

Keywords:
Mental patients; hospitalization; mental health (Source: MeSH NLM).

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1. Hospital Victor Larco Herrera. Lima, Perú.
2. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina “San Fernando”. Lima, Perú.
3. Universidad Ricardo Palma, Facultad de Medicina. Lima, Perú.
a. Médico Psiquiatra, Jefe del Departamento de Epidemiología.
b. Médico Residente de Psiquiatría.

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